A disease is an abnormal state that affects the functioning or structure of some or all organs of the body, and which is not caused by any direct external injury. Diseases are also commonly referred to as medical conditions which are characterized by certain characteristic signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms are common to all illnesses, but in case of a disease, they tend to vary depending on the type of disease and the part of the body that is affected. Common signs and symptoms include fever, rash, swelling of extremities, joint pains, headaches, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Some forms of non-infectious diseases can cause grave consequences, although, in most cases they are not life-threatening. Measurable microscopic particles called pathogens exist in every environment, and these particles can easily be transmitted from one individual to another. The majority of pathogens are known to be contagious, because they can be spread through contact with a sore, by means of an open wound, or by sharing personal items. Close physical contact with an infected person also facilitates the spread of infections. There are various methods to prevent the spread of pathogens, including personal hygiene and exercise.
In contrast to non-infectious forms of disease, healthy person diseases are generally caused by invading microbes or bacteria. For example, allergies are caused by allergic reactions to specific kinds of substances that an individual is exposed to on a daily basis, whereas bacterial infections are generally caused by invasive microbes such as E. coli. A healthy person’s immune system normally repels these dangerous microbes, so healthy individuals are generally safe from acquiring these infections.
Some healthy individuals are unacquainted with the existence of various infectious diseases such as AIDS or HIV/AIDS, which are caused by the invasion of certain microbes into the body, and consequently causing the immune system to function in a weakened manner. People who are HIV positive and AIDS infected do not have a strong immune system, making them susceptible to infection. There is no way for them to protect themselves from such dangers. A good way to prevent exposure to HIV and other dangerous microbes is to engage in regular medical checkups.
The possibility of acquiring contaminated food exists, although this factor cannot be controlled. People can prevent the risk of acquiring contaminated food by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products, soft cheeses, meat, poultry, eggs, distilled beverages, dried or smoked fish, poultry organs and other animal tissues, as well as insect bites and stings. These foods may contain salmonella bacteria, which is one of the causative agents of infectious diseases. A good way to know if one’s food may contain salmonella is to consume it immediately after preparing it.
Another example of a causative agent is contaminated food or water. People can prevent the occurrence of fall sick with this disease by following these simple steps: cooking all food at low temperatures; regularly cooking food to maintain its nutritional value; washing all food thoroughly; using uncontaminated containers for food storage; and avoiding sharing food and water. The last step in this chapter includes reading the Food Hygiene Code of Prevention, which provides a list of the different diseases that may be spread through food. By following these simple tips, you can save yourself from the risks of catching infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis c and HIV.