A disease is a specific, abnormal state that adversely affects the functioning or structure of a micro-organism, and this is not because of any direct external damage to the organism. Diseases can also be termed as medical conditions, which are usually associated with certain symptoms and signs. These may vary from person to person and they may be presenting in different combinations or in conjunction with other symptoms and signs.
There are many ways to fall sick or become diseased. These include various viruses, bacteria and parasites that may be transmitted through breathing air, consuming food and water and by contact with a particular infected object or individual. Common diseases can affect humans by means of airborne particles, chemicals, fluids and blood. In addition, animals may acquire common diseases by means of their immune system, which may be weak due to some other reason. Some kinds of illnesses include viral gastroenteritis, amoebiasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis and viral meningitis.
The study of microbiology has been very helpful in discovering and providing treatments for many kinds of diseases. This field studies the role of micro-organisms in the development of various types of diseases and their immunity against various diseases. Microorganisms can also cause these disorders, if the immune system is weak. This weakness can be developed due to stress, excessive smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages and consumption of antibiotics and some other drugs.
Research into the causes and prevention of these infectious diseases has helped to find new ways of controlling and preventing them. Maintaining good health and hygiene can reduce the risk of getting affected by any of these disorders. People should practice good personal hygiene such as washing hands often and avoiding direct contact with bodily fluids and secretions. Personal care should be maintained by ensuring proper disposal of body fluids and secretions.
Proper diagnosis is also very important in the treatment and management of these fatal infections. The most common way of identifying infectious diseases is the use of a skin lesion or swab test. There may be cases when the causative agent cannot be identified through a culture of fluid from a lesion. In these situations medical doctors use a blood specimen to identify the causative agent. There are different types of methods used in determining the cause of a specific disease and it varies from one disease to another.
These contagious diseases are highly transmissible between humans through different means. Different kinds of non communicable diseases include; syphilis, hepatitis B, HIV, genital herpes, hepatitis C and mononucleosis. Some of these diseases may become a disease with time if left untreated. Hence these diseases should be taken very seriously, since they may become the disease in future generations if left untreated.